It is said that this is a time of tearing apart, and the multiplicity of values leads to endless debates and even quarrels. It’s not because a new round of quarrels about “men” and “women’s guns” has been ignited again recently on a show that naturally centers on a few red-hot streams of fresh meat. In fact, behind the controversy between “female gun” and “masculine” is the escalation of the conflict between two accumulated emotions, not only the antagonism between male and female rights, but also the self-defense of the beneficiaries of different times. From the last century to the present, the evolution of masculinity is not simply from “masculine” to “female gun”, but more diversified and open. This can be seen from the literary characters we accept. In the era when the male intellectual elite had the right to speak, the male idols in literary works often emphasized the role of “shoulder”, either the great hero of heaven and earth or the scholar-bureaucrat with the world in mind. With the promotion of group discourse power, the male images in literary works are no longer just masculine, not only military or male intellectual elite aesthetic, but also some gentle, sensitive and so-called feminine male images. Today’s issue of the list, we take the male image as the introduction, through several common male images in literary works, to explore the author reveals the creative interest. (written by people’s Literature Publishing House, literature book list, phoenix net culture, thank you)
passionate American fans
— source works: the great Gatsby,
Author: [American] Fitzgerald Scott
Publishing House: People’s Literature Publishing House
original name: The Great Gatsby
translator: Yao Naiqiang
Gatsby is the contemporary embodiment of the American Dream: he was born poor, but he loved to learn, consciously and systematically trained himself as a child. At the end of the novel, Gatsby’s father showed Nick Hobaron Cassidy, and Gatsby, a teenager, wrote it neatly on the front page of the dilapidated Western novel. Franklin’s timetable reflects his sense of self-discipline and hardship.
After years of struggle and unscrupulous practices, Gatsby eventually had the capital to move into the upper class and bought a luxurious villa in West Egg, Long Island.
but class differences deeply blocked Gatsby’s pursuit of career and love. Race, origin and taste arrested Gatsby’s stride across the class. Gatsby will never be on an equal footing with Daisy and will never be accepted into the upper class. No matter how much wealth he has, he still has no noble background, matching contacts, in front of competitors, he is as vulnerable as a knight without hands and legs. Daisy was moved and shaken by him, but she and Tom were the same class, as selfish, hypocritical, and morally corrupt. In real life, Daisy is the hope that has always flickering in Gatsby’s mind. But what makes Gates incredibly beautiful is just a vulgar asset class lady. “Strong” “It’s the inexhaustible charm of her voice, the sound of money, the sound of cymbals hitting… In a white palace high above, the king’s daughter, a girl in gold and silver… ”
Daisy is the highest goal of life with pleasure. She loved Gatsby, but loved Tom’s solid status and millions of families. When she was in panic, she hit Tom’s mistress, moltel. Gatsby was willing to offend her, and finally was killed by Wilson. Daisy walked away, not only afraid to admit that she was the real perpetrator, but also indifferent to Gatsby’s death. Gatsby’s ideal contribution to build a beautiful body of money was built with his whole life.
kill a blinking iron straight man
— source works: “Water Margin”
Author: Luo Guanzhong / Shi Nai an
Publishing House: People’s Literature Publishing House
subtitle: Rong and Tang Ben
in the outlaws of the marsh, Li Kui took up two axes and chopped them up. What was he chopping down? They were all eating melon crowds – watching the bustle along the way and cutting down a lot. In order to let Zhu Tong go to Liangshan, he split the head of the children of the governor’s house in two. What’s more, Li Kui complained. After complaining, she met the girl from the landlord’s family to engage in free love. Li Kui was conservative in thinking. Why do you have free love? It is not important to kill others, kill them, and slash the corpses of two people by chopping them up.
Li Kui is responsible for his brothers and leaders, but some of his practices are always very thinning.
Xiaofeng, Guo Jing
a man of
— source works: “the legend of Shooting Heroes”, “the eight dragon of heaven”,
Author: Jin Yong
Publishing House: life, reading, new knowledge triple bookstore
publication year: 1999-04
Author: Jin Yong
press: Guangzhou publishing house
publication year: 2012-8
, what is it for?
Liang is famous for his words: “the man of chivalry is for the country and the people.” A small man is a friend to his neighbour. ” It is Mr. Jin Yong’s novel that carries out this purpose. In the “divine eagle companion”, he also quoted a quote from Ren Gong:
, “Guo Jing added,” why do we practice martial arts? It is in spite of itself that we should fight for justice and help people. In fact, Xiangyang, the defender who respects me for the country and the people, is the one who respects me as “Guo Daxia” on the rivers and lakes. However, I was so limited that I could not overcome difficulties for the people. You are ten times more intelligent than I am. I only hope that you will keep in mind the eight words “for the country and the people, the great chivalrous man” and become a true chivalrous man respected by all the people in the future. A man is a real chivalrous man in his life.
Jin Yong is good at writing heroes. Guo Jing, like “The Heroes of Shooting and Carving” and “The Knights of the Sculpture”, refused all enemies in Xiangyang, stayed in bed and thought of peace and shame, grew up from a plain teenager, and eventually became a man of chivalry. For example, Xiao Feng in Tianlong Babu, from the talented young men of the Lu Gang to the king of Nanyuan in Qidan, died generously and wanted peace between Song and Liao in his heart. Whether in the Hong Kong version or in the Zhang Damouzi version, Xiao Feng’s death has earned the audience’s tears, and his death is also a martyrdom of chivalry.
< p > Even if Zhang Wuji could not escape the love of his children, Jin Yong took advantage of his words to utter a few words of great righteousness and audacity. Let’s see The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber:
“Yang Xiaodao:” we have to kill him (Zhu Yuanzhang), it is effortless. But Zhu Yuanzhang recruited troops to buy horses and captured the prefectures and counties. He killed only half of the mountains and rivers of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty, and almost half of the mountains and rivers of the Han Dynasty brought them back to life. This is a real credit. Let’s take the blood as a league and take the flag together for the sake of coming, not for this big event. Zhu Yuanzhang and Li Wenzhong can’t be killed. Even if they betray Ming religion, if they can recover the Han Dynasty and drive the Mongolian Tartars back, we can’t move them a cent.
Zhang Wuji nodded, “yes! Compared with the Han Dynasty, Ming religion is lighter than that of the Han Dynasty. After the defeat of Ming religion, it can be revived again. If the Han Dynasty is occupied by other nationalities, it will be extremely difficult to recapture it again.
Deng Xiaomang said: “In the 1980s and 1990s, almost all the Chinese reading circles were just introduced to Hong Kong and Taiwan martial arts novels.” What was the martial arts at that time? He explained: “Those knights and righteous men, each with great skill, dare to be brave, rescue, righteousness and shallow clouds, in the river and lake up to freedom, revenge will be rewarded.” Let chivalry become a half human and half god character, and it is the main theme of martial arts novels and swordsman films in 80s and 90s. In these works, knight-errant is a just judge, the guardian of social order, but also the people’s lifesaver.
Qi Tong Wei
‘s step by step blackening of contemporary
– source works: the name of the people,
Author: Zhou Meisen
press: Beijing October literature and Art Publishing House
publication year: 2017-1-1
in the name of the people, Qi Tongwei is the representative of the desire for power and promotion. He used to be a hot blooded anti drug policeman. When he was young, he had his own beloved and had a hero’s dream. But “heroes, but the tools of power,” he because of Liang Lu’s oppression, a good future cast a shadow, and Chen Yan’s daughter Chen Yang’s love has to withstand a great test. As a result, Qi Tongwei, who tasted injustice, abandoned his heroic dream in order to change his fate. He knelt down to Liang Lu, changed his fate, and made him yield to power and began to cater to power.
Qi Tongwei’s alienation is not just caused by himself. Man is the sum total of social relations, and people’s fate and choice are bound by society from the very beginning. Those who stand at the moral commanding height to condemn Qi Tongwei, facing Qi Tongwei’s situation, not many people can say more noble than him. However, it is believed that Qi Tongwei could embark on a just road without being persecuted by Liang Lu in those days, and neglected the key influence of Qi Tongwei’s character on his life.
< p > Qi Tongwei’s fall was due not only to the persecution of power, but also to his own intense “dream of man above man”. Qi Tongwei is very concerned about fame and wealth in his bones. He is unwilling to be poor. He needs flowers and applause to surround him. He needs power to irrigate his hearts. Even without the persecution of the Liang family, even if Qi Tongwei’s life is as easy as Hou Liangping’s, it is hard to guarantee that he will not become another Ding Yizhen under the temptation of higher power and status.
concept of gentle soft men
— source works: a dream of Red Mansions,
four collection of masterpieces — a dream of Red Mansions
Today’s readers of A Dream of Red Mansions will feel that Jia Baoyu’s ideas are not outdated at all. When he wrote A Dream of Red Mansions, he felt ahead of time. Jia Baoyu’s contempt for the imperial examinations and her equal treatment of women are all bright spots in an environment in which the noble families honor the imperial examinations and the princes’children delight in despising women. In the eyes of many people who praise “masculinity”, Jia Baoyu seems a little softer. In today’s popular words, he may even be accused of being a “female gun.” However, Jia Baoyu is actually a very stubborn person in his bones. He despises a lot of things, originates from the pride of his soul. This is a half-human and half-immortal figure, sustenance. The simple vision of many authors.
However, Jia Baoyu has his own limitations. He is not really a decisive person. Because of the constraints of his family environment and his dependence on his own class, Jia Baoyu can not really break away from his clan for the sake of his ideas. His appreciation of women also has the color of talent and beauty. This is similar to another chapter of the novel “Mirror Flower”. In the world of Mirror and Flower Margin, the praised women are beautiful and talented. The talented women are loved by the author because they challenge the male monopoly of knowledge. But in addition, the women are still ignored and suppressed. This is the worship of “talent” and “beauty” in the hearts of the literati.
adherence to dogmatic Russian
— source works: the man in the middle of the pack,
Publishing House: People’s Literature Publishing House
P > He was a Greek teacher, who wore a pair of shoes, an umbrella and a warm cotton overcoat even in fine weather. All his belongings and even his face were in the covers. He was a disciplinarian, and for him, existence was reasonable, the past was good, and the laws of reality need not be doubted,’only the official announcements and newspaper articles that published the various prohibitions are clear.
Bie Lee Kopf died in the ridicule of others. It started in a conflict — Kovalenko accused him of being an informer, and with a startled look he warned Kovalenko: “I must report the main points of this conversation to the principal in order to avoid being distorted and what happened.” In a fit of rage, Kovalenko pushed him down the stairs and made him laugh at the woman in his pocket. “This series of crisp, loud haha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha- He lay down in bed and never got up again.
After Belikov’s death, people returned to their usual order, harsh, repressive, and wary of each other, and Chekhov reminded them, “Actually, although we buried Belikov, there may still be a lot of people in this suit, and we don’t know how many in the future!” This sentence reminds us of Lu Xun’s “Madman’s Diary.” Four thousand years ago when eating people, today I understand, I also spent many years in it; elder brother is in charge of housework, sister just died, he is not necessarily in the meal, secretly give us to eat. Lu Xun criticized the “cannibals”. Chekhov pointed his spear at the “man in the trap”. But the man in the trap was not a “man in the trap”? Another character in the novel, Ivan Ivanez, was thinking, Isn’t it a trap to write useless papers and play with Venter? The man in the trap laughed at the man in the trap, the thinker was asked to sleep, the absurd social reality of the late imperial Russia was broken by Chekhov, but what could that be? Just like the end of The Man in the Set, people give up painful thinking and choose to sleep and enjoy their dreams.
sensitive and scared “boy”
— source works: “human disqualification”
Author: Taijae Ji
press: Wuhan publishing house
original name: human disqualification
translator: ye Yi
In Unqualified Man, Ye Zang is a young man of aristocratic origin, who is likable to women, but sensitive and afraid. After failing to make up with the mainstream, he falls into decadence, and the secular world decides to shut him up in a mental hospital. “Disqualification” is the representative work of Taijae Ji, whose other translation is “the qualification to lose one’s life”. This novel is like his own confession. Ye Tibet is a character who poured Taijae Ji into the heart, as if Taijae Ji’s “ugly” shadow. Taijae Ji’s straightforward style of writing is at the cost of its great spiritual defense. He devoted himself to describing the psychological state of marginalized people, but he was unable to provide solutions all his life. This heavy problem doomed him to go into nothingness and unable to escape.
The protagonists in Tai Zai Zhi’s novels are always in self-exile. They can’t handle the relationship with the world properly. Their blunt and pessimistic character leads to many obstacles. In emotional life, they express their feelings generously, but in long-term relationships, they do not have the ability to love a person, let alone gradually good family. A pair of lovers who voluntarily commit suicide are elements of Tai Zai’s novels. For example, in The Disqualification of the World, the female characters often want to die, and the Ye Tibetans have the same heart, and they plot suicide together. Although the novel is by no means an autobiography of Tai Zai, some recurring plots are projections from the heart of Tai Zai. If we look at the concept of secular society, Tai Zai is more or less selfish in dealing with the word “responsibility”, for example, when he was in contact with the early Shan Dynasty, he was at the same time with the Ginza Coffee Shop. Azimi Tanabe, a 17-year-old waitress, had an affair and went to Kamakura Yaoyue to die on the coast three days after living together. However, in 1936, when the hill had an affair with others in the early days, Tai Zaizhi could not bear it. He was ill at the time and was admitted to the Takeshi wild hospital. The Hill had an affair with Sajiro of the Art Life Museum in the early days of the hill. He almost broke down. Tai Zai was not a man of noble character. He was very childish, but he was honest after all compared with many hypocrites in the world.
, tough, straight man
— source works: “Daming Dynasty 1566”
Author: Liu Heping
Publishing House: People’s Literature Publishing House
people are the most important. Hai Rui in Liu Ping’s works, like historical figures, has feudal limitations and patriarchal ideas, but the difference is that the interests of the people become a higher standard of conduct than the patriarchal father. Hai Rui does not ignore the overall situation, he takes into account the overall situation of the people. He was angry that bureaucrats used the guise of the general situation to continue to eat people’s blood steamed bread. The ministers were busy with the party struggle, and the local officials sheltered the faces of their peers, the emperors, the teachers, the cabinet, the priests, and even the lords. Each of them was above the people. Bureaucrats raise money, there is no way to continue to exploit the people. Hai Rui hated that he couldn’t change the situation. He hated the party fighting and stripping. If he compromised and conformed to the feelings of Zhao Zhenji and Tan Lun, it meant that he defaulted to the established rules and he bowed his head.
but Hai Rui will not. He “strict the party to participate, the emperor to admonish, to the father of the Emperor Yao and Shun, to avoid the hunger and cold of the people. A gentleman is lighter than a country. Therefore, he dares to say, “all those who have impeachment of the party have been involved in the royal family. On the contrary, I think, it is because they dare to be strict and dare not speak frankly about the great evils of the world that the Yan Party can hide behind the great evils of corruption without falling down. If the world is full of disadvantages, a severe party will be restored. ”
Actor Huang Zhizhong once recalled that playing Hai Rui was a particularly torturous character, and that the role was on the brink of death. Huang Zhizhong divides the interpretation of Hai Rui from his past works into historical images, literary images and folk images and Hai Rui in 1566 of the Ming Dynasty is performed in accordance with folk images. And the most difficult thing about this folk image is that you want to make him look like a person, but also to embody a transcendental temperament in him, a temperament that convinces the audience that Hai Rui can indeed serve as a spiritual example.
from literature to reality
argue about “mother gun” and “masculinity”?
From Gao Cangjian, Jackie Chan and Tang Guoqiang in the 1980s to the present “returned four sons” and “three sons of empire”, the image of male idols has undergone tremendous changes. male idol in 80s can not be generalized by “masculine” or “tough”. Gao Cangjian and Jackie Chan are tough guys, but like Tang Guoqiang, before performing the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, he also carried the label of “cream pupil” and “not tough enough”. In the age of “female gun” to describe idols, “cream pupil” is a common label to describe flexible idols. Tang Guoqiang is trying to prove that he is not only a creamy pupil. “Cream raw” has taken the road of historical drama.
screen hero Ken Takakura
If we stretch our sight, the aesthetics of idols in the 1980s and early 1990s is very similar to that of traditional male scholars. The heroic dream of the literati for thousands of years, the tough man with a sharp knife and the noble son with the demeanor of Wei and Jin Dynasties, these symbols were poured into the works by the creators. Therefore, the idols such as Gao Cangjian, Tang Guoqiang, Chen Daoming, Yan Kuan and Nie Yuan stood out because they inherited the literati’s imagination of the “character” in the symbols. Today, the old school artists criticize the new idol “mother gun”. The implication is that the latter has no strength. The iconic faces of the pre-Internet era are not only the result of patriarchy, but also the ambiguous dream of scholars in the minds of the creators, which is also the reason why historical plays and martial arts plays are flourishing.
< p > However, that was doomed to be a time of rapid death, when the creators did not have to look too much at the faces of the masses, and the elites were still the highest holders of the works. But with the development of the Internet, things changed. Old-fashioned creators clearly saw that their ideal idols were out of touch with the masses and that new consumer groups were out of touch. No longer satisfied with the master of all the tough men or gentlemen, they want a sufficiently warm, friendly and low aggressive symbols, a willing to protect their favorite, and their own growth together with the “love bean”, naturally with a dozen tough men do not meet expectations, Lupi, Wang Junkai, Yi Shutou Qianxi, etc. That’s what they belong to.
P > Whether it is a tough man or a knight-errant, a king or a minister, the male elite always emphasizes the role of the hero. They bear the country or a nation on their shoulders. Their lives burn up for a group of people. They are not just idols, but tend to be heroes. The perfect imagination of such heroes is Batman and Superman, who guard a city without regret even if misunderstood. Coincidentally, these superheroes have a strong physique, even through clothing to emphasize their strength and masculinity, in the eyes of the male elite, that is what the idol should look like.
Mei Chang Su
list of Langya
Today, this kind of idol still exists, Mei Changsu in Lang Ya Bang continues to satisfy the reverie of the ancient gentleman; Wu Jing in Warwolf fights and kicks for publicizing the national prestige; the soldiers in Operation Red Sea show the national style through assistance, they are the continuation of traditional idols, but It is not the whole of today’s idol ecosystem. Women with huge purchasing power need the idols that satisfy their diverse needs. Tang Guoqiang and Gao Cangjian are very attractive, but if they monopolize the whole idol ecology, it will be too boring. Many women no longer need to carry the country’s heroes, but a high degree of self-lovable “little brother”, young people, simple, unrestrained, white and even independent as a new icon label, so, A large number of male elite “surprise” idols appear, they are created according to the Japanese and Korean entertainment industry model, combined with the changing needs of Chinese consumer groups, from Han Geng to Yishou Qianxi, from Li Yuchun to Huachenyu, this kind of change of interest is difficult to be summed up simply by “becoming a mother”.
In retrospect of the changes of male idols in China, the weakening of the discourse power of the intellectual elite and the rise of the discourse power of urban women are the important reasons, but the change of the times atmosphere can not be ignored. The Cold War era, which is related to the survival of ideology, has passed. Sino-Soviet relations and drastic changes in Eastern Europe have all been turned into history. Today, it is very difficult for people to feel the urgency of the 1980s, especially at the moment of reform and opening up, to set up a tough man idol and to cultivate the “masculinity” of the youth, which was considered at that time. Matters related to the survival of the country. But back at the moment, young people feel more of the pressure of society, is the complex interpersonal relations and their dependence on and constrained consumption civilization, idols do not need to stand on top of heaven and earth like Xiao Feng heroes, fans need is a long-cherished white jade teenager Fu Heng, flying self-brilliant morning, not afraid of Embarrassment on their own Wu Yifan, that is their sleepless dream of Manli, a “do yourself” but not the comfort. The key to attracting new idols is not their mothers, but their closeness and softness. Unlike old-fashioned idols, you always feel their elitism and their superior deterrence.
If one side, just because the other side has the tendency to rise, tries to attack the other side with its own right to speak in the political and cultural spheres, which is more harmful to the cultural ecology than they impose on the other side. Fang’s accusations are much larger. If we fail to be vigilant, the so-called “aesthetic salvation” will eventually become the tyranny of aesthetics.