Big mistake: Mars City

what area is Mars city built in?

“P > Mars has always been a hot topic, but < strong > Musk and others are currently working on space navigation , on what to do after arriving on Mars, how to settle down and so on. Many people are so curious about the city, the buildings and the life on Mars that they ask me in private. And < strong > geographical location is very important for the development of a country, a city < / strong >, I live in Shanghai is to benefit from geographical location and become the economic center, the country’s largest port. The location of cities on Mars is equally important, and today I’m going to think about < strong > preliminary < / strong > analysis and thinking about < strong > predictable future realities < / strong > in < strong > the location of the first human settlement < / strong >.

“P > < strong > I think the first human settlement’s priority was to be a space port < / strong > to facilitate the takeoff and landing of space-to-ground transport systems such as the BFR superrocket, as anyone with a bit of space common sense knows, the lower the latitude of the < strong > space launch site, the more energy savings from the rotation of the planet < / strong > . And for Mars, low latitude means it’s easier to launch low-angle spacecraft, which is good for two of the planets to Mars and even for interplanetary flights. The < strong > low latitude illumination is also more sufficient, conducive to solar power generation, higher temperature is relatively more comfortable, but also convenient to use geostationary orbit communication satellite . So the first Mars settlement < strong > first site selection condition is < strong > < EM > latitude must be low, the closer the equator is better!!!

< p > Because for quite a long time, < strong > Martian traffic input is greater than output, landing and unloading is more important than launching . Therefore, it is necessary to make a safe and economical landing. For spacecraft, the most economical way to decelerate is to use atmospheric resistance to brake, as far as possible to save propellant consumption, so that more people and cargo can be safer. There is no doubt that the effect of atmospheric deceleration is related to travel and atmospheric density. This means location the lower the altitude, the better the .

In order to make the space transportation system economically reusable and increase attendance, the most important thing for < strong > is propellant replenishment . Take SpaceX’s BFR super rocket as an example. It uses liquid oxygen methane engine . The well-known formula for methane is CH4, and the Martian atmosphere is rich in carbon dioxide, which solves the source of oxygen and carbon, but hydrogen is needed. The best source of hydrogen is water, which can come from groundwater (ice) or even hydrated minerals. Added that human life needs more water, there must be sufficient water near the site .

< p > Mars is now of immeasurable scientific value despite its lack of economic value, and curiosity drives human exploration and expeditions. The ancient oceans, rivers and lakes of Mars are of great scientific significance. Therefore, site selection requires scientific expeditions to maximize the value of settlements.

It’s obviously not easy to meet all of these requirements at the same time. After a preliminary comparative analysis, I think that the site of the first human settlement on Mars is suitable for Memnonia quadrangle in the southern hemisphere of Mars, which is favorable for space-to-Earth traffic across the Martian equator, and low elevation in many places helps to make it possible. Decelerate with atmospheric resistance. Because in the equator, warmer and better light helps solar power. At the same time, this area and contain hydrated minerals, which may have groundwater resources , which is more important. This area is rich in various landforms, with relatively flat low altitude areas, but also < strong > paleoflood impact traces < / strong > and other highly scientific landforms. Interestingly enough, the landing point of the Opportunity rover is also near this area.

The < strong > landmark in this area may be < strong > across the equator Nicholson impact crater , Nicholson impact crater as the benchmark, < strong > distance from the famous Olympus volcano about 1400 km , which adds additional value.

The map below is a topographic map of the Mennong area. Note that most of the areas near the equator have relatively flat latitudes. Traces of palaeo floods are also clearly visible.

below is the location of Mars on the globe. Please refer to the Nicholson crater as a benchmark.

Finally, it is concluded and emphasized that Memnonia quadrangle, which has the advantages of convenient transportation, water, sufficient sunlight and great scientific research value, is suitable for being the first human settlement on Mars. This first city may be called Nicholson to correspond to this landmark base. Nicholson city will be a seed and a door. Perhaps the future position in Mars history is like the James Don + New York port in American history.


comments on Mars architecture

< p > I always thought that the future of colonial architecture on Mars would not be as bizarre, lightweight, and technological as in science fiction. On the contrary, the reality of the Mars colony is likely to be ‘s low-key, simple and heavy . Mars residential buildings are either underground (like subway stations, underground shopping malls) or semi-underground (like bunkers) or very hard, protected by thick concrete walls. Particle < strong > radiation used to block radiation from the sun and cosmic rays, may be < strong > more than 5 tons per square meter of material , to ensure that radiation shielding to a completely safe level, long-term living will not increase the risk of cancer or future generations of congenital diseases and other health problems.

internal lighting will be mainly artificial lighting, natural lighting supplemented. There will be an electrostatic dust-proof system on the outer cover of the natural daylighting well, and the shape will be sharp or steep, so as to avoid the accumulation of sand and dust as much as possible. The collected natural light will be introduced into the interior of the building through mirrors or optical fibers. So Mars itself is an absolute < strong > three fortresses level for the Earth, so to speak < strong > Mars architecture is a real refuge .

The future colonies of Mars need to build < strong > mobile hangars so that they can effectively protect and maintain the spacecraft landing on Mars, which is overlooked in the effect map. Otherwise think of If the spacecraft’s thermal protection system is blown away by flying sand or meteors , then could cause a repeat of Columbia’s disintegration tragedy when it landed again . If dust and other debris run into the engine, blocking some pipes or valves, it might not explode when it takes off again. So the anti dust and anti flow star hangar is very important. The hangar must also have service facilities such as lifts and handling machinery to facilitate the loading and unloading of personnel and goods.

Solar power is a good choice for generating electricity, but considering that < strong > Mars has about one-third of the sun’s intensity on Earth , it requires a condenser to boost power twice the result with half the effort, and dust removal systems like electrostatic and bus wipers are also important to avoid dust storms. Trouble.

The ratio of deuterium on Mars is 2-3 times higher than that on Earth (I forgot specifically), which means that Mars will have enough fusion fuel after nuclear fusion matures. Of course, deuterium-deuterium fusion takes about 200 kilovolts of temperature to ignite, which requires < strong > no But it’s harder than deuterium-tritium fusion, even higher than deuterium-helium 3, so maybe the first and second generation Martians won’t enjoy . Because there is no sunlight at night, it can be assisted by a fissile reactor. The < strong > fuel cell will also be very important for power reserve and peak shaving. Hydrogen may not be used directly, because < strong > has low density of liquid hydrogen, easy gasification and small molecule, easy permeability and leakage and causes < strong > hydrogen embrittlement problems. Ammonia may be more suitable for use as a fuel, because of the boiling point, ammonia-liquid oxygen fuel is easier to store in the Martian environment, < strong > the same volume of liquid ammonia hydrogen content is higher than liquid hydrogen . And Because ammonia is carbon-free and burns without carbon deposits, it helps to increase engine life and reduce maintenance requirements, ammonia may also be an important engine for the Mars Rover .

why doesn’t we use liquid ammonia as fuel on earth? The engine of the famous X-15 rocket power test aircraft is liquid ammonia. Why is it not widely used? Because the leakage of liquid ammonia is smelly and toxic, and it is also flammable and explosive. The leakage of liquid ammonia has caused serious casualties in China. These troubles counteract the advantages of liquid ammonia. And liquid ammonia on Mars is different, in Mars outdoors wearing space suits, it is impossible to inhale the leakage of ammonia poisoning, and the Martian atmosphere does not contain oxygen, ammonia leaked no oxidant can not be burned and exploded.

By the way, Old Ma also ignored the development of Phobos and Phobos , and it might be better to build outpost bases in Phobos and Phobos’Caves before landing on Mars. Because there is no need to face the danger of Mars re-entry landing, and the material of Phobos and Phobos can be used to shield radiation and meteoroid impact. The construction of transit stations, spacecraft maintenance and supply facilities on Phobos and Phobos will be crucial to Mars colonization. BFR and other launch systems running directly to the Earth-Mars route is like a long-distance bus. Railway and sea transport are undoubtedly more economical than road transport. In the future, huge solar-powered spacecraft will play a role in railway and sea transport. The interior space is large, and the capacity is also greater, that is, can not directly take off and land on the surface of Mars, as the train, ship can not deliver people to the door of the same. Phobos and Phobos play the role of railway stations and ports, . In this way, the future interplanetary traffic will be more efficient, economical and convenient.

Why did

leave the earth to emigrate to Mars and other harsh world? Originating in hot Africa, would not freeze to death in Africa without clothes, tropical melons and fruits were everywhere in the jungle, and starved to death without food . It can be said that < strong > African jungle < EM > is not worried about food and clothing < / EM > < / strong >, but why did the ancestors go out of Africa, to the relatively cold climate, food is not enough elsewhere, the expansion of globalization? is today’s advantaged Africa well off or cold in northern Europe and Canada?

P > Look long-term. Going out of the earth is not a rush to pursue a more comfortable and comfortable life, but a search for new opportunities, a new life and a new civilization. The natural environment of the earth is better than that of the rest of the solar system, but there is a terrible disaster on the earth that the rest of the solar system does not exist – man-made disasters, more than 2,000 years ago the ancients stressed that “tyranny is fiercer than tiger” . Building self-sufficient new civilizations elsewhere on Earth can avoid the troubles of ambitious, mad, extremist, geopolitical and ethnic conflicts and religious and historical disputes.

note that has no natural disaster in history. Its death toll and devastation are comparable to that of World War II . The harsh natural environment is not terrible, the terrible is the mutually destructive, the most terrible man-made disaster. Extraterrestrial new civilizations can hide from the human calamities on the earth and develop in silence, like refuge, Noah’s ark . Perhaps one day, the earth broke out in the third world wars, and the civilization regressed. New civilizations outside the earth can carry on the fire and become a beacon for mankind. The helps to rebuild the earth by avoiding the loss of valuable science, technology, culture and art.

P > Again, we must consider the new human civilization rising out of the new world for the future can not stay in the old thinking of the game of great powers on the earth and the game of the Five Changs. Just as < strong > is now the United States, Australia and other < EM > New World countries < / EM > can not be ignored the same < / strong >.

what steps does it take to settle and develop Mars? Let me talk about my personal view

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unmanned explorer and Mars rover will be fully laid on. The < strong > sampling of Martian surface, especially subsurface soil and water ice is the most important. Laboratory studies of < strong > 4 biochemical hazard protection standards are needed. < strong > recognizes that there are no dangerous indigenous microorganisms that can infect life on Earth below Mars before embarking on a manned mission . Otherwise, no one of wants to go to the super new virus, such as Ebola and super flu.

< p > After confirming the safety of Mars and deciding on its location, the first non-scientific flights to Mars were naturally to send robots and equipment. One of the most often overlooked but important devices is the deployable solar charging station , with hundreds or even thousands of square meters of flat solar cells, electrostatic precipitators, and power tens of kilowatts or more . It is equipped with < strong > wireless charging induction coil to charge unmanned construction machinery regularly, < strong > as a gas station , with communication relay function. can be deployed in different areas to facilitate other carriers to charge nearby. It is cheaper and safer than nuclear reactors. Of course < strong > If conditions permit, it is better to bring a nuclear reactor, so that the night can be normal power supply, do not rely on battery < / strong >.

P > followed by < strong > unmanned construction machinery such as excavators, bulldozers, construction robots, handling/crane robots, which have solar cells of their own and are equipped with large-capacity lithium batteries and charging coils. Once the robot’s lithium-ion batteries run out of power, it relies on the power of its own solar cells to charge quickly at the < EM > charging station < / EM > < / strong >. In this way, high-strength construction can be realized, and the construction schedule can be delayed by low power and slow charging of solar cells.

(p > < strong > volatile resources utilization equipment < / strong >, which includes water treatment system (melting ice and then distillation, partial electrolysis), methane production equipment, low temperature fluid (liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, methane, liquid nitrogen, etc.) management and storage system, etc. Through the construction of those unmanned machinery < strong > to enable the local Martian initial production of water, oxygen, propellant and other fluid supply capacity, ready for the arrival of the follow-up spacecraft .

The first humans may not have landed directly on Mars , but will dig holes in Phobos, bury modular capsules and other structures in the rocks and soil of Phobos, and build a base for Phobos. Then the robot on Mars surface will be operated on the base of Phobos to conduct scientific expedition and infrastructure construction. This reduces the risk to humans — re-entry to the Martian atmosphere is dangerous, and many Mars probes crash in the landing phase while saving transportation costs (using economically viable solar-powered spacecraft), taking off from the surface of Mars is also more difficult and expensive than flying with Phobos. More (< strong > Mars escape speed 5,027 m/s, Phobos 1.39 m/s ), simplify the mission. The initial population of Phobos may be 12-36, in mature conditions , and personnel stationed at Phobos may visit the surface of Mars from time to time for inspection and even emergency maintenance equipment. why is remote control on Phobos instead of remote control on the earth? Because of the speed of light and the distance between earth and Mars, there is a serious communication delay. You can only send e-mail, there is no real-time communication, fire guard a very close distance will not have communication delays caused by the trouble.

< p > With the arrival of subsequent cargo flights, the infrastructure of unmanned robots on Mars, such as Phobos, is becoming more sophisticated. Excavators dig trenches, lay prefabricated foundations in the trenches, then put in a series of modular Martian living facilities including residential capsules, agricultural capsules and so on, and then bulldozers use Martian soil to fill the trenches, forming protective layers up to several meters thick . There are interfaces for air locks, power supply, communication and thermal control on the surface. is linked to other completed Mars infrastructure. Thus, on the surface of Mars, there are conditions that can ensure human life.

< p > < strong > the first people to move will probably be technicians, engineers, geologists, biologists < / strong >, the first few naturally, a number of growth. The work is to improve and expand the infrastructure of Mars as soon as possible and self-sufficiency as soon as possible. Provide the foundation for the next large-scale development. Initial formation of Martian concrete, Martian glass, Martian metals (especially iron, nickel, aluminum, magnesium) and ethylene (pre-conditions for polymer production) industries. builds milestones, solar cells and machinery on Mars. From self-sufficiency in fuel and food to self-sufficiency in building materials and machinery, the development of local resources on Mars is no longer entirely dependent on the Earth, and Mars is only beginning to become a true colony, not an outpost. established Parliament and other administrative organs in a substantive sense, continued to improve infrastructure, expand scale, < strong > began to accept immigrants from outside engineers, technicians and scientists, and developed the tertiary industry and even cultural and creative industries. Population size may soon exceed 10,000, and < strong > will develop into a prosperous, vibrant town.

P > Certainly < strong > Some high-tech products, such as computer chips and other local Mars for a while difficult to make, but also from the Earth < / strong >. We have to maintain good relations with the earth. At the same time, Phobos and Phobos may have several trusses hundreds or even thousands of meters long, with large areas of solar cells, radiators, communication relay antennas, and interfaces, supercharged tunnels, robotic arms, rail transport systems, and even docks. The main base, especially residential areas, is still in these two trusses. Stars are underground to block radiation. Carbon dioxide from Mars and ice from both satellites and even asteroids have been treated to turn into propellant to supply the berthed spacecraft.

< p > Giant solar-powered electric propulsion spacecraft shuttling between Earth and Mars or even between Mars and Vesta or Ceres loads and unloads materials and personnel, maintains and supplements propellants on these two satellites. Future giant solar-powered electric-propulsion interplanetary spacecraft could be tens or even hundreds of megawatts in power, with solar arrays as wide as fields, capable of carrying thousands or even more tons of loads at a time. Space and ground transport systems such as BFR also frequently dock at these two ports, acting as a connection transport , and may also be maintained and modified at the dock of Huo Wei Port rather than on the surface of Mars.

If Mars is prosperous enough later, Mars has a population of more than one million, there may even be small space cities in Mars orbit . It can accommodate tens of thousands of people and simulate artificial gravity by rotation. Apart from being a port, a space factory, an observation and communications platform, is also a Martian holiday destination. After all, the surface of Mars is low in gravity, and space cities can provide the same simulated gravity as the Earth’s surface and overlook Mars.

P > < strong > Once the population of Mars exceeds the million mark, and the computer chips, precision instruments, drugs and other < EM > high-tech products can be self-sufficient, it can be independent of the nation < / EM > < / strong >. I think the settlements on Mars may form a federation, with the settlements or cities highly autonomous, distinctive division of labor and trade with each other. The central government on Mars has limited powers and is mainly responsible for diplomacy, defense, coordination issues and the construction of super infrastructure. The independence of Mars may be similar to Britain’s departure from Europe. It also requires complicated referendums, negotiations and so on.

what was the relationship between Mars and earth before independence? According to the relevant laws and regulations of the United Nations treaties on outer space, no country may occupy or claim sovereignty over extraterrestrial celestial bodies. So the Mars Settlement and Development Council is < EM > International < / EM >, < EM > autonomous < / EM > < / strong >, and the status of the situation will be very special, and it will probably be < strong > enacting the Mars Convention < / strong >, amending international law, and even the Charter of the United Nations. determines the international political status and legitimate rights and interests of the Mars settlement .

The real declaration of independence by Mars may set off a < strong > gun battle on the earth, and the media and the United Nations may be stirred up. The big powers will play the Mars regime with each other as chess pieces and chips , < strong > or, if not, may be tempted to send aid to expand its influence on Mars . The newborn Republic of Mars may also encounter difficulties and threats , but < strong > is actually thunderous and rainy, because Mars itself is of little economic value. After the signing of the relevant agreements between the Republic of Mars < EM > and the United Nations and the countries on Earth, the Earth is likely to recognize that Mars independence is a < strong > < EM > fait accompli, and is unlikely to have the situation of the Martian Terrestrial Army because the struggle between the < strong > countries is too late EM > . There is no doubt that the Charter of the United Nations, LOGO, international law, even the World Trade Organization, WHO, etc. will have to be amended, and textbook publishers will have to rush to amend them. Countries will also set up embassies and consulates. Mars could become the sixth-largest permanent member of the Security Council (among other things, < strong > throwing asteroids at Earth as powerful as nuclear weapons ).

As for the future, Mars may become a < strong > New America as its population grows and muffles. At the level of science and technology, we are going beyond the world of intrigues and intrigues. Become a new power to see the earth.

Of course, while Mars is being developed, < strong > belt asteroids and even dwarf planets in the belt < strong > Ceres will be developed and colonized, but that’s another story. In the long run, it may be that the development of small bodies and the establishment of new civilizations are more like a series of alliances between city-states and island-states. It could be the solar system’s largest space transportation capacity, the strongest fleet strength, but the Army is terrible. Because small objects escape slowly and are easy to exploit resources , space transportation is more convenient than Earth, Mars, and even the moon. Resources are also abundant, even though gravity is lower, and there may be < strong > many rotating space cities that generate simulated gravity .

P > and I think the future of Mars development and immigration may be similar to the East India super enterprise , but there is a big difference. It could be SpaceX, Blue Origins, Bigelow Space, Boeing, Airbus, Northrop-Grumman, or maybe even IBM, Microsoft, Google and other technology giants joint ventures, as well as a series of international organizations, non-profit organizations, foundations to join or assist. Joint development of Mars, looking for business opportunities, but also < strong > to seize hot spots (the best public relations, advertising) to expand influence . It is the first time that human beings have crossed after multinational enterprises. The emphasis will be on infrastructure, especially transportation, energy and life support , which can be shared.

some people may ask that many of these enterprises are rivals and deadly enemies. How can they cooperate? There is no such thing as a business between enterprises. What is important is how to do that in order to contribute to long-term development and greater benefits (including influence). Note that Boeing and Lockheed Martin are deadly enemies in military aircraft and other products, but they have also jointly established the United Launch Alliance (ULA). So I think the development of Mars is likely to be a joint venture of a technology giant to create a super enterprise, providing technology and financial, material and human resources. While expanding their influence, let Mars settlements develop as quickly as possible, cultivate user habits, fatten up after the new market can make money to open branches.


what will life be like on Mars?

In the distant future, not to mention the near future reality, since < strong > Mars lacks a strong global magnetic field and the atmosphere is very thin, buildings designed to block radiation and meteoroid impacts on Mars will initially be < EM > underground < / EM > or < EM > semi-underground < / EM > mainly < / strong > with few windows (possibly naked eyes). The stereoscopic display screen is a virtual window with narrow space. may feel like , an ant tribe living in the basement of North Canton.

Out-of-doors neighborhoods may be similar to subway stations and underground shopping malls. Traffic in general, such as going to work, to the hospital, and to send children to school, can be solved by underground tunnels. Ng>. Due to the relatively difficult ground to Mars, have to change the space suit air lock, pay attention not to let Martian dust into the capsule, try to avoid air leakage and so on. It’s relatively easy to ride in an airtight Mars rover, but you also have to go through the docking brake. You can’t get off on the way, and everything has to be settled in the car. It is estimated that in addition to work needs and occasional trips, seldom wants to leave the dungeon. By the way, Mars is useless in Mars because of its lack of real magnetic field.

“P > People take food as their priority. Besides vegetarian food such as grains, vegetables and fruits, the delicacy of meat eaters such as < strong > steak dinner, ham and bacon may not be practical , < strong > animal protein sources or meat dishes may reproduce crustaceans (shrimps, fleas) that do not produce odor rapidly, but Crabs do not reproduce enough meat. Quick, probably not suitable for Mars, mollusks (shellfish, snails, including snails), fish predominantly . There may also be a number of poultry and small mammals, such as < strong > rabbits , that reproduce as quickly as possible. Large livestock, such as pigs, cattle and sheep, occupy a large space, breed slowly, and pollute a lot of odor, which poses a problem for the environmental control system and is not suitable for the foreseeable future of Mars settlements. Steak and ham can only be imported from the earth, because of the long waiting time, high freight, frozen for a long time is not fresh, I think the average person will get rid of this idea.

But because Mars is a man-made environment where crops are grown, pests and diseases are blocked by quarantine when seeds are launched. So Mars produce will be green and pollution-free , without pests and diseases and without pesticides, and because of man-made control, no natural disasters, no pests and diseases 24 hours of light + high concentrations of carbon dioxide, keeping the best temperature and so on, Mars < strong > farms will be much more productive than Earth . the only insect allowed to come to Mars is probably a gentle bee , used to pollinate and make honey. At the same time, people who want to commit suicide can not buy dichlorvos or paraquat on Mars.

Mars has limited population and limited industry. Many consumer goods, such as cosmetics, have to be imported from the earth in the early stages. The price of the goods is as much as you can imagine after the freight rate is added. Moreover, the order has to wait for the launch window, and the delivery delivery of the haircutter will take months to receive the goods. Mars is not suitable for chopping hands and Shopaholic. For the Chinese, the Spring Festival Festival also can not return to their hometown, unless you are a super local tyrant, but even the local tyrants not poor money also have to consider the launch window and sailing time.

The delay caused by distances and speed limits is a big problem — the longest delay is about half an hour in a round trip when the orbits are relatively far away, resulting in no instant messaging between Mars and Earth, leaving messages and sending emails. Online games aren’t possible when the Earth’s Web site opens pages and refreshes signals back and forth between Earth and Mars. The price depends on the communications infrastructure. I estimate it’s much more expensive than 3G or 4G Internet traffic, after all, interstellar. Internet . Because Mars has more than twice the Earth’s revolution period (Martian year) and a slightly longer rotation period (Martian day) than Earth’s, this naturally leads to different calendars, the coordinated conversion of Mars time to Earth time is a headache , not as simple as the conversion of Earth’s time zone or summer time. These restrictions are the most painful for a dead house.

The low gravity of Mars (0.376G) is good news for the legs and feet of the elderly, as well as for the feminists pursuing gender equality — in the low gravity environment of Mars, the elderly on Earth who used to need wheelchairs and crutches can stand up and run faster and may be able to take care of themselves. It’s also much more comfortable for pregnant women, and because spraying liquid directly under < strong > low gravity can backwash and splash easily, there may be no urinal buckets in Martian toilets. Men have to sit and drain like ladies, not just standing up or using a zero-gravity toilet tube, so men and women are more equal… Similarly, because of low gravity and odor prevention, environmental control systems are not always considered, there will be no squatting toilets on Mars, and many Chinese will probably not be accustomed to it. Because the < strong > water circulation system processing capacity, water will be limited, like a half-day shower may not be accustomed to , but there are not so many need to water the lawn on Mars, the underground stadium in order to save water and maintenance will also use artificial grass.

P > Mars not only needs science and engineering, but also needs < EM > liberal arts students < / EM > < / strong >, < strong > < EM > Art Students < / EM > < / EM > < / strong >, because the colonies of Mars need people to administer, manage, provide services such as psychology, justice, mediation, editing news, entertainment, educational activities and other non-technical work, after all < Strong > Man is not a machine, not an elite astronaut like on the space station, and the station is just < EM > work place < / EM >, < EM > not home < / EM > for astronauts. also because the colonial space on Mars is relatively small, in order to make full use of limited space, avoid fatigue, psychological problems, improve the quality of life. Good environmental design and artwork are needed to decorate and design Mars publications, websites, and software. The < strong > outsourcing to teams on Earth is a headache, extremely inefficient and expensive, with huge communication delays and high bandwidth costs alone. So Mars still needs arts students and art students, and I think a lot of people will be relieved to see it.

Finally, I wondered what the language, history, geography textbooks on Mars were like and how they would relate to the Earth.

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