The “God particle” that determines the end of the universe is captured. The Long March can take second steps.

The discovery of the Higgs in 2012 is only the first step in the 10,000-mile march, and there is still a vast area to be explored behind the Higgs, hoping to find all the decay of the Higgs. The significance of this discovery is that once again the standard model has proved a great success, the main decay process of the Higgs particle has been discovered, and scientists’constant exploration has finally paid off.

< p > The Higgs particle was discovered in lepton pair decay (2012), and as the Xinhua news agency reported, the standard model predicted that the Higgs particle would decay mostly to the quark pair, which accounted for 60% of the Higgs particle decay, meaning that the decay should be “common”. But why didn’t the discovery of the bottom quark pair decay of the Higgs particle be announced until six years later (2018)?

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Because the background of this decay process is so complex, scientists need to pick out a very small number of signals from a huge amount of data. If the teenager wants to find a female deskmate in a school auditorium for 1,000 people in 2012, he will probably find his girlfriend at a concert for 30,000 people in 2018. The lepton-to-decay process of 2012 has a lot of background, and the quark-to-process background of 2018 is much more. There are so many bottom quark pairs that can be produced during proton collisions at the LHC that scientists have to distinguish which bottom quarks come from the decay of Higgs particles from vast amounts of data.

Scientists at the European Nuclear Center have been collecting experimental data until now they have accumulated enough data to enable the Higgs to achieve a five-fold standard deviation in the signal of decay at the bottom quark, and to declare that this is a “observation,” knowing that the paper on high-energy physics wants to use observation as a standard. The significance of the signal must reach 5 times the standard deviation. This discovery is crucial because we can use it to test standard models, or to discover new physics. Today’s discovery by the European Nuclear Center tells us that measurements of this decay process are consistent with the predictions of the standard model.

< img SRC = "http://pic4.zhimg.com/70/v2-92e3e60c85f61994ee57dbbb2e8f720b_b.jpg" data-width = "1980" data-height = "2559">The discovery is a landmark event in the process of exploring the Higgs particle. Up to now, LHC has observed the coupling of the Higgs particle with the main decay modes of the three generations of heavy quarks and leptons. With the accumulation of experimental data, when the LHC gets larger statistical samples, humans have the opportunity to get more accurate measurements while searching for more difficult physical processes. Comparing these latest experimental results with the theoretical predictions of the standard model, we can verify the correctness of the theory and find new physical phenomena beyond the predictions of the standard model.

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  1. [1808.08242] Observation of Higgs boson decay to bottom quarks<<<
  2. [1808.08238]Observation of $H\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\H $production With the ATLAS detector
  3. < li > don’t be fooled by the total number of pages in their paper, in fact, the last ten pages of the article are all the author and the name of the unit! < li > I’ve tried to invite a Chinese researcher directly involved in the discovery to learn about popular science, but she says she’s not playing with it…
  4. It is said that scientists have used machine learning in this discovery, and they do not know if there are any people involved in this work to introduce. One disadvantage of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is that the physical process is complex and “dirty,” and the European Nuclear Center plans to build an upgraded version of the Positron and Negative Electron Collider to obtain “clean” data for accurate measurements of Higgs particles. The European plan is a strong contender for China’s Ring Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) program.
  5. A large number of new particles were discovered in the experiments in the 1950s-1960s. At that time, the theoretical people were both headache and excitement. The standard model was gradually established after a large number of experiments and new discoveries. Then the standard model made some theoretical predictions, followed by experiments. In fact, experiments have found many new physical phenomena beyond the standard model, such as neutrino oscillation, dark matter and dark energy.

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